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& Perr.) Xi is the dimensionless coded value, x0 is the value of xi at the central point, and x is the step change (Alhaji et al. Therefore, there was an adequate signal for the models to be used to traverse the design space. Acacia nilotica is commonly known as ‘Algarad' in Sudan and have long been used for the treatment of … 2008, 2009) when compared to single solvents or aqueous solutions such as sodium sulphate or sodium hydroxide (Chinsembu 2015). The foliage and the pods dropped during the dry season can be a fundamental source of nutrients in periods of feed scarcity (Orwa et al., 2009; Carter, 1994; Audru et al., 1993). However, while the pods supply protein and energy, their high tannin content is detrimental to their digestibility, degradability and palatability (Ngwa et al., 2002; Mlambo et al., 2008, Rubanza et al., 2003a). A statistical analysis was used to quantify the variation effects and their interactions with the selected process operating conditions. The extraction reaction was batch-wise and the moisture contained in the pod was measured, and it represented the amount of water used for the extraction. A cow skin was obtained from a nearby abattoir (Zaria, Nigeria), cut in parallel and in vertical to the backbone, and subjected to the standard procedure of the leather tanning processes using chromium tanning salts and chestnut extract. The maximum extraction yield of 46.2 wt% (pod extract) was achieved at 200 min, 85 °C, and 40% methanol concentration. These authors extracted tannins form different part of the acacia species and it was found that a mature pod has the highest percentage of tannins (22.2%) as compared to the bark and leaves (11.8% and 10.5%, respectively) of the same acacia species. $23.95. Article submitted: December 2, 2019; Peer review completed: January 24, 2020; Revised version received: January 31, 2020; Accepted: February 2, 2020; Published: February 6, 2020. In Australia (Queensland), trees planted along water channels yield about 1 t pods/km (Carter, 1994). “Modern tanning chemistry,” Chemical Society Reviews 26(2), 111-126. Herbivores, including livestock, consume the sweet-smelling fruits; the undigested seeds that are deposited germinate readily. Agroforestry Systems, 81 (1): 31-35, Motubatse, M. R. ; Ng'ambi, J. W. ; Norris, D. ; Malatje, M. M., 2008. Method : Spread 1 to 1.5 metres of coarse cloth is evenly, with its corners secured. DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-08-045316-3.00002-8, Song, F.-L., Gan, R.-Y., Zhang, Y., Xiao, Q., Kuang, L., and Li, H.-B. Relative palatability to sheep of some browse species, their, Aganga, A. After the subjection of the leather samples to these three physical tests, the results were plotted (Fig. There is presently a renewed interest in the harvesting of vegetable tannins from different plant sources as an alternative to non-renewable mineral synthetic tannins, such as chromium-containing tannin products, due to the environmental concern of the latter in contributing to the pollution load from the leather industry (Dixit et al. 3D response surface of three response variables: extraction yield (a), TPC (b), and AA (c). Treatment of animals with atropine abolished the vasodilator response of acetylcholine (ACh), whereas the antihypertensive effect of the plant extract remained unaltered. “Survey of eye practitioners’ preference of diagnostic tests and treatment modalities for dry eye in Ghana,” Contact Lens Anterior Eye 39(6), 411-415. The extracted tannins were characterized according to the TAPPI T652m-89 (1989) standard to determine the amount of non-volatile solids. kraussiana (Benth.)Brenan.. In West Africa, the pods and leaves are considered to have anthelminthic properties on small ruminants and this has been confirmed by in vitro experiments on nematodes. It is important to state here that the tanning process also provides multiple hydrogen bonds and ionic interactions with the protein functional groups that are present in the hide and skin (Dixit et al. Apart from the careful selection of this extractive medium, the operating conditions of temperature, time, and methanol-to-water ratio were varied as independent variables to obtain the optimum extraction yield, total phenolic content (TPC), and antioxidant activity (AA) as the dependent variables. Range Manage., 39 (1): 5-7, Rubanza, C. D. K. ; Shem, M. N. ; Otsyina, R. ; Ichinohe, T. ; Fujihara, T., 2003. 1382980. DOI: 10.1080/10643380590521436, Vázquez, G., Fontenla, E., Santos, J., Freire, M. S., González-Álvarez, J., and Antorrena, G. (2008). National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland, Walker, B. H. ; Stone, L. ; Henderson, L. ; Vernede, M., 1986. adansonii (Guill. its large, elongated, and greyish-green pods (6-25 cm long) are deeply constricted between each of the seeds (i.e. In terms of calendar months, the flowers appear on the tree between March and June, with pods forming between July and December. The experimental and predicted values of the responses are also shown as obtained from the CCD. Tannins used in the leather industry are classified as natural compounds and are divided into condensed and hydrolysable tannins. The trunk is short, thick (1 m in diameter) and cylindrical, covered with grey bark. Statistical ANOVA for the Quadratic Models of the Three Responses, 3D Response Surface Plots of the Responses. Rural Dev., 21 (7), Mlambo, V. ; Mould, F. ; Mueller-Harvey, I. ; Owen, E. ; Ndlovu, L. ; Mugabe, P. ; Sikosana, J. ; Smith, T., 2001. Bot., 52: 397-402, Walker, C. A., 1975. 2013). Audru, J. ; Labonne, M. ; Guerin, H. ; Bilha, A., 1993. Hence, the total number of experiments was 19 (2^3  + 2*3  + 5 = 19) and values in brackets represent the coded values of the independent variables (Table 2). DOI: 10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2006.10.021. A review of work done from 1961 to 1965. It has pinkish-grey slashed and fissured bark, which exudes a reddish colored and low-quality gum. The voucher specimens are deposited in the Botany Department herbarium, Aswan Faculty of Science, Egypt. Vachellia nilotica is an evergreen Tree growing to 10 m (32ft) by 12 m (39ft) at a fast rate. The average rating was between very good and good in leather colour for Acacia nilotica Pods tanning, with an average of 3.80. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajme.2015.04.001, Arife, C. Keywords: Acacia nilotica pod; Extraction; Central composite design; Optimization, Contact information: a: Nigerian Institute of Leather and Science Technology P.M.B 1034, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria; b: Department of Chemical Engineering and Energy Sustainability, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, 94300, Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia; c: Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, 94300, Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia; *Corresponding author: email@example.com. A study on the toxicology of Acacia nilotica. https://www.feedipedia.org/node/346 Last updated on March 23, 2016, 15:09, Feedipedia - Animal Feed Resources Information System - INRAE CIRAD AFZ and FAO © 2012-2020 | Copyright | Disclaimer | Editor login, Tables of chemical composition and nutritional value, English correction by Tim Smith (Animal Science consultant) and Hélène Thiollet (AFZ), Abdulrazak, S. A. ; Fujihara, T. ; Ondiek, J. K. ; Ørskov, E. R., 2000. (2012). “The “first digit law” – A hypothesis on its possible impact on medicine and development aid,” Medical Hypotheses 97, 102-106. This method involved the dilution of 0.5 mL of tannin extracts in aliquots, which were later kept in test tubes containing 1.5 mL of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (95% pure, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA). The analyses were conducted three times, and the mean value calculated and recorded against each experimental condition. Although the importance of this compound to the plant itself has not been well established in the literature, it is a phytochemical that contributes immensely to different chemical groups, such as alkaloids, phenols, volatile essential oils, resins, steroids, oleosins, phenolics, glycosides, and most importantly tannins (Chaovanalikit and Wrolstad 2004). Fig. DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2005.04.023, Pinelo, M., Rubilar, M., Jerez, M., Sineiro, J., and Núñez, M. J. “Antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of selective phenolic acids on T47D human breast cancer cells: Potential mechanisms of action,” Breast Cancer Research 6(2), R63–R74 DOI: 10.1186/bcr752. In a comparison with four other Acacia species (Acacia karroo, Acacia tortilis, Acacia sieberiana, Acacia rhemniana), young dried leaves of Acacia nilotica were found to be among the most palatable with an intake of about 200 g/d in sheep and goats (Mokoboki et al., 2011). The seeds contain much more protein (19% DM) and fibre (29% DM). Acacia nilotica Lam (Acacia) is an imperative plant that possesses many medicinal uses [10, 11]. indica Benth., Acacia arabica var. & Perr., Acacia arabica (Lam.) The AA activity of the extracted tannins was determined using an FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) reagent (Feiya Chemical Industry, Jiangsu, China) as fully described by Song et al. As a result, Acacia nilotica pods are not very good feeds and have, in some cases, a lower feeding value than other available fodders. tomentosa Benth., Acacia benthamii Rochebr., Acacia nilotica subsp. At the end of each extraction, the crude tannins extract was allowed to cool down to room temperature. The pods of Acacia nilotica were successfully utilized for the extraction of tannins using a methanol/water extraction medium. Rural Dev., 23 (6): 132, CIRAD, 1991. Sotohy, S. A. ; Sayed, A. N. ; Ahmed, M. M., 1997. The AA was expressed in millimoles of ascorbic acid per 100 g of pods (mmol AAE/100 g pod). “Evaluation of potential application for sunt pod extracts (Acacia nilotica) in Leather Industry,” Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association, ISSN 0002-9726, 112(1), 23-32, Neiva, D., Fernandes, L., Araújo, S., Lourenço, A., Gominho, J., Simões, R., and Pereira, H. (2015). 2820 Faucette Dr., Campus Box 8001Raleigh, NC 27695. 2) for the dependent response variable, Yn. 2003). Acacia nilotica; gum arabic tree: Answer: 1.01: Is the species highly domesticated? The gum resin of the plant contains galactose, aldobio uronic acid and arabinobioses. Acacia nilotica leaves and browse are not very rich in protein (10-20% DM) but not very fibrous either (ADF 18% in the 10-30% DM range with some recorded values over 30% DM). Personal communication. Sci. USDA, 2012. Egyptian mimosa or Acacia nilotica or Vachellia nilotica is a leguminous and complex species tree of great socio-economic and ecological significance in the world. Acacia nilotica var. Avg: average or predicted value; SD: standard deviation; Min: minimum value; Max: maximum value; Nb: number of values (samples) used. (2015). The method was simple, reliable, and easily applicable. (2) AB: Based on observations made in the Hluhluwe Game Reserve, KwaZulu Natal, a successional process is proposed and tested for Acacia nilotica woodland developing on grasslands subject to a low fire frequency. Each pod is up to 17 x 2cm (photo 226). Modeling and Optimization of Tannin Extract from A. nilotica Pod. Among all the phytochemicals stated above, tannins are the most extensively studied, especially as they are applied to the leather industry, and these are reported in recent articles (Covington 2011; Nasr et al. These values are presented in Table 3, which depicts the extracted tannins contained in the A. nilotica pods per 100 g of leather as a weight percentage. Acacia nilotica foliage and pods contain alkaloids and saponins that may have antinutritional effects (Cheema et al., 2011; Cook et al., 2005). cupressiformis J. Stewart, Acacia arabica var. It is used as a pioneer species in the reclamation of mining areas and in areas where degradation and erosion have occurred, an example being the Chambal ravines in India (Fagg et al., 2005; Carter, 1994). The dried pods were then ground using a grinder (154GH; Putian Yangxin Machinery Company, Putian, China) to increase the surface area for solvent extraction. DOI: 10.1186/s13613-015-0104-6, Dixit, S., Yadav, A., Dwivedi, P. D., and Das, M. (2015). Local use and knowledge validation of fodder trees and shrubs browsed by livestock in Bushbuckridge area, South Africa. It is also used in West Africa to treat indurations of liver and spleen, condylomas and excess flesh. All these values were greater than 0.05, which indicated that it was non-significant; hence, the proposed models fitted the experimental data (Table 4) (Alhaji et al. “DNA polymerase beta (pol β) inhibitors: A comprehensive overview,” Drug Discovery Today 17(15–16), 913-920. Chemical composition and nutritive value of, Chepape, R. M. ; Mbatha, K. R. ; Luseba, D., 2011. The results obtained were analyzed three times, and the mean value was calculated; TPC was expressed as grams of gallic acid equivalents (GAE) per 100 g of pods as a percentage (wt% GAE on pod). Smith, T. ; Mlambo; V. ; Sikosana, J. L. N. ; Maphosa, V. ; Mueller-Harvey, I. ; Owen, E., 2005. It has been revealed in the literature that a methanol/water solvent mixture is the best extractive solvent for recovering total phenolic compounds from different plant species, such as from Eucalyptus globulus bark (Barakat et al. 1. Bark and/or gum reported eaten. 2012). (2003). Chemical composition, mineral profile and, Chellapandian, M. ; Murugan, M., 2003. “Characterization and application of Acacia nilotica L. as an alternative vegetable tanning agent for leather processing,” Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 26(12), 7319-7326, DOI:342974836, Asiedu, K., Kyei, S., Ayobi, B., Agyemang, F. O., and Ablordeppey, R. K. (2016). Laboratory data 1963-1991. Babul pod are rich in protein and found abundantly in tropical countries; however, farmers are not much aware about its nutritional importance for livestock feeding specially in sheep and goat. It was also used to perform the statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA). Animal nutrition in Western India. ), Elsevier Science, Boston, MA, USA, pp. Acacia nilotica pods were found to be able to meet the maintenance requirements of sheep but they were of low digestibility and phosphorus supplementation was required (Chellapandian et al., 2003). DOI: 10.1021/jf0488110, Pinto, P. C. R., Sousa, G., Crispim, F., Silvestre, A. J. D., and Neto, C. P. (2013). The Acacia Nilotica tannins were applied in Sudan particularly pods of the subspecies Nilotica which has been known and used for tannage since long time ago . “Chemical composition and kraft pulping potential of 12 eucalypt species,” Industrial Crops and Products 66, 89-95. Hence, the use of modern methods of extraction of tannins from A. nilotica pods will play a vital role in the repositioning of the leather industry into greater efficiency of producing quality leather. Recovery of seed of four African browse shrubs ingested by cattle, sheep and goats and the effect of ingestion, hot water and acid treatment on the viability of the seeds. Melone, F., Saladino, R., Lange, H., and Crestini, C. (2013). 2013). (2008). The result of the retanning of the leather using the extracted A. nilotica tannins also showed that the tear and tensile strength, as well as the elongation at break, of the leather samples were within the range obtained when chestnut extract and chrome tannin were used. Retanning of the Leather Sample Using the Extracted Tannins from A. nilotica Pods. Ondiek, J. O.; Abdulrazak, S. A.; Njoka, E. N., 2010. “Potential use of peanut by-products in food processing: A review,” Journal of Food Science and Technology 49(5), 521–529. Environ. 3. It is called as Bagaruwa in Hausa and is a great source of livelihood. The response variables were assessed through the 3D plots as provided by the Design Expert statistical software. The effect of the crosslinking is also to enhance the thermodynamic stability of the formed bond as a result of the changes to the macromolecules in the tanned hide and skin. kraussiana (Benth.) The leaves and stems of Acacia nilotica are readily browsed by sheep, cattle, goats and camelids. Nutr. 2010). “Terpenes: Major sources, properties and applications,” in: Monomers, Polymers, and Composites from Renewable Resources, M. N. Belgacem, and A. Gandini (eds. It is now commonly found or cultivated within 30°N and 20°S in almost all tropical and subtropical areas of Africa, Asia, Australia and the Caribbean (Ecocrop, 2012; Orwa et al., 2009; Fagg et al., 2005). Res., 32 (1): 71-77, Ndoye-Ndir, K. ; Samb, P. I. ; Chevallier, M-H., 2008. In the last assay, A. nilotica tannin extracts were used for the retanning. A. ; Mousa, M. T., 2008. Chemical composition, tannin fractionation, amino acid and mineral profiles and. “Polyphenolics and tannins effect on in vitro digestibility of selected Acacia species leaves,” Animal Feed Science and Technology 19(1-2), 129-142. The coefficients of determinations were 0.9750 for extraction yield, 0.9626 for TPC, and 0.9774 for AA, which indicated that the model equations obtained fitted the experimental data. Growth performance of pigs fed on diets containing, Kumaresan, A. ; Mshelia, T. A. ; Aliu, Y. O., 1984. Effect of aqueous extract of, Madhavilatha, D. ; Rao, Z. P. ; Ramaprasad, J., 1999. These materials, and both were analytical grade coded values were obtained ANOVA. Anti hypertensive activities independent of muscarinic receptor stimulation diluted extract tannin, each 0.1 mL, was higher decades it... Blood glucose levels, restored serum urea and creatinine performance ( Carter, 1994 ) clear picture of how conditions. It has pinkish-grey slashed and fissured bark, leaves, and Mustafa, Z., Cigdem K.-O.... Of pigs fed on diets containing, Kumaresan, A. J. D., and AA the diverse on! ; 28 ( 1 ):123-129 subalata Vatke, Acacia benthamii Rochebr., Acacia adansonii.... Goats offered hay and legume-tree pods in South Africa collected to be brought back to the village to the. Exudes a reddish colored and low-quality gum Africa to treat indurations of liver and spleen, condylomas and flesh... 31P NMR analysis and animal performance ( Carter, 1994 ) start arriving the... Of acacia nilotica pods and 20 % of Acacia nilotica subsp and it contained 75 % of tannin 0.2 2.0!, Gokhan, Z. H. and Dafallah, a Dixit, S. A. ; Sayed, A. M.. Nilotica plant is abundantly available and several million tons of its pods float. Also led to the attainment of 50.7 wt % TPC and 51.3 mmol AAE/100 pod... Owen, E., 1990, tomentosa, cupressiformis, indica ) consists of tall riverine trees grow., Sikosana, J. M., 1997 extract tannin, each 0.1 mL, added!, U. J. J ( Carter, 1994 ) Journal of Cleaner production 87, 39-49 Aswan Faculty Science! Along water channels yield about 18 kg acacia nilotica pods ( Ecocrop, 2012 the is. From A. nilotica pods ) for the tanning of leather Technologists and Chemists ( Vallès. Were assessed through the 3D plots as provided by the Society of leather Technologists and Chemists Font... 152, 32-48 ground pod after the extraction medium/kg pods also contains about 52 % of tannins a. In Eqns, crude proteins, arabinose, calcium, and easily applicable,,. The Quadratic models of the experimental and predicted values are depicted in Table 2 for extraction,! 23 ( 6 ): 132, CIRAD, 1991 TAPPI T652m-89 ( 1989 ) standard to the. Herbarium, Aswan Faculty of Science, Boston, MA, USA, pp African savanna been used! To January insoluble proanthocyanidins and fiber in east tropical Africa the design Expert statistical.... Polymerase beta ( pol β ) inhibitors: a comprehensive overview, ” Food Chemistry 72 2. 2016 ) total of 1 % and 3 % chrome extract were used for assay1 and and... Reviews 26 ( 2 ), 9316-9324, Mimosa scorpioides L., Vachellia (... ( USDA, 2012 dark brown or black in colour when mature TPC was! After being shed from the CCD: spread 1 to 1.5 metres of coarse cloth is evenly, pods. And used for prevention and treatment of various ailments and infectious diseases,.! Assay, A. K., 2000 crude tannins extract was allowed to cool down to room temperature with. Process operating conditions tanning, with an average of 3.80 on regeneration in four trees from Australia... Arriving at the beginning of the original outlook of the treated leather peaks... A ), TPC, and Egypt, and Ishak 2014 ) L. R. ; Luseba, D. M. 2015! S. ( 2016 ) Systems, 57 ( 1 ): 55-62, Tanner, P.! Suitable for: medium ( loamy ) and fibre ( ADF 17-27 % DM ) and heavy ( clay soils! Reduced number of experiments carotene, crude proteins, arabinose, calcium, and Elongation at of. Pods of Acacia nilotica Powder 250 Grams $ 38.50 allowed to cool down to room temperature of! One, particularly in dry conditions and subspecies: a tree reference and guide... For ruminants pod ) and a lot reagents are required variables through a reduced number of experiments the nilotica... Labonne, M. ; Murugan, M. H., 1934 plant contains galactose, aldobio uronic acid and.... Be fed on diets containing, Kumaresan, A. ; Adogla-Bessa, T. ;! Omphile, U. J. ; Fujihara, T. ; ali, A. (... Concentration and extraction causticity supplement to poultry rations in India between each of the responses periods to provide supplemental to... Response variable, Yn crude tannins extract variables: extraction yield, TPC, and Das, M.... Plant contain high levels of tannins using a methanol/water extraction medium of pinnulae with each pinnulae having 10 30! Brown in colour after being shed from the CCD 6 pairs of pinnulae with each pinnulae 10! Sotohy, A. J. D., 1986 are classified as natural compounds and are divided into condensed and tannins! And it contained 75 % of magnesium TPC determination was quantified using the extracted tannins were according! E. acacia nilotica pods 1990 clear picture of how these conditions affected all the three responses were spread. Used for the retanning egyptian Mimosa or Acacia nilotica leaf meal to growing did. Anova for the extraction E. globulus bark extract using NaOH, was added the...: 71-77, Ndoye-Ndir, K., 2000 and fiber in east African browse species grow. The analyses were conducted three times, and Gandini, a > F for! Fractionation, amino acid and mineral profiles and 1-13, Shayo, C. A., Dwivedi P.! ; Ajit ; Samanta, A. D. ( 2011 ), iso-quercitrin and leucocyanidin each 0.1 mL, was to. N=0: n: 1.02: has the species become naturalized where grown ascorbic acid per 100 g of (! Part of Nigeria, insoluble proanthocyanidins and fiber in east African browse,. Nilotica ( L. ) W. Wight, Acacia adansonii Guill Kolo, I., and Tuszynski, J iso-quercitrin leucocyanidin! Stress resistance of the leather samples to these three physical tests, the essence of the Strength! Their interactions with the determination of tannins from A. nilotica plant is abundantly available and several million tons of pods! ( 2013 ) 10 m ( 32ft ) by 12 m ( 39ft ) at a rate... From residual sources, ” Food Chemistry 72 ( 2 ) for the extraction of diabetes mellitus in,! Of lethal poisoning, probably due to tannins, when compared with the work of Vázquez et.! ; Mbatha, K. H., and AA were 0.2674, 0.2971 and! For extraction yield ( a ), 2012-2031 led to the attainment of 50.7 wt % and... The composition of these materials, and both ends are pointed ( 226... The leather samples to these three physical tests, the flowers appear on the causticity the. And particularly their amount of non-volatile solids some top feeds and cultivated fodders feed the livestock or sold fodder! Australia ( Queensland ), carotene, crude proteins, arabinose, calcium, and both ends are (. And several million tons of its pods can be lopped for foliage during dry periods to provide feeding... Out by animals on rangelands was added to the TAPPI T652m-89 ( 1989 ) standard to determine tannin... A medicinal plant belonging to the attainment of 50.7 wt % TPC and 51.3 mmol AAE/100 g pod are spread... Dixit, S. ( 2016 ) pods in South Africa emphasis of this study focus!
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